AP Gap Topics

Over the break, use your textbook and internet resources to acquaint yourself with the following topics that will not be covered in our other units, in addition to reviewing the year so far. These topics have, in the past, been minor features of the AP exam if they do appear, but are always "fair game."
Also, Bozeman Biology has two videos that touch on several of the gap topics: Homeostatic Evolution and Mechanisms of Timing and Control

Enduring Understandings

Enduring Understandings are the College Board's AP Biology course objectives that you need to know for the AP exam. Below, you'll find those Enduring Understandings relevant to this unit. Numbering and lettering matches the course objective document linked from the main page of this website.
Every Enduring Understanding will NOT necessarily be covered during class time; you will be independently responsible for some of them.

D. Growth and dynamic homeostasis of a biological system are influenced by changes in the system’s environment.
2. Homeostatic mechanisms reflect both common ancestry and divergence due to adaptation in different environments.
  • a. Continuity of homeostatic mechanisms reflects common ancestry, while changes may occur in response to different environmental conditions.
  • c. Homeostatic control systems in species of microbes, plants and animals support common ancestry.

E. Many biological processes involved in growth, reproduction and dynamic homeostasis include temporal regulation and coordination.
1. Timing and coordination of specific events are necessary for the normal development of an organism, and these events are regulated by a variety of mechanisms.
  • e. Temperature and the availability of water determine seed germination in most plants.
2. Timing and coordination of physiological events are regulated by multiple mechanisms.
  • a. In plants, physiological events involve interactions between environmental stimuli and internal molecular signals.
  • b. Phototropism is the response to the presence of light.
  • c. Photoperiodism is the response to change in length of the night, that results in flowering in long-day and short-day plants.
  • e. In fungi, protists and bacteria, internal and external signals regulate a variety of physiological responses that synchronize with environmental cycles and cues.
3. Timing and coordination of behavior are regulated by various mechanisms and are important in natural selection.
  • e. In phototropism in plants, changes in the light source lead to differential growth, resulting in maximum exposure of leaves to light for photosynthesis.
  • f. In photoperiodism in plants, changes in the length of night regulate flowering and preparation for winter.